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Intro
Schedule
Services
Sell Chometz
Clean
Kasher
Pesach Eve
Sizes
Seder

For the whole month of Nissan there is no tachanun, no fasting, and no visiting the cemetery. 

During this month we say a blessing over the blossoming fruit tree.

Passover (Pesach in Hebrew)is also known as the "holiday of freedom," because it commemorates the Jewish Exodus from Egypt following 210 years of slavery. Passover is regarded as the official "birth" of the Jewish nation, and its lessons of struggle and identity continue to form the basis of Jewish consciousness 3,300 years after the event.

The Exodus was essentially an account of Moses' prodding Pharaoh to "let my people go -- in order that we may serve the Almighty." It took a lot of convincing -- Ten Plagues in all -- but eventually the Jews walked out of Egypt in broad daylight. Seven days later, the Red Sea split, drowning the Egyptian army. Then, 50 days after the Exodus, the entire Jewish nation stood at Mount Sinai to experience divine revelation and receive the Torah.

Passover is an eight-day holiday (in Israel, seven days). It is marked by the eating of matzah, unleavened bread, and by the celebration of an elaborate Seder on the first two nights (in Israel, on the first night only).

The Seder is designed to give each Jew the experience of "going from slavery unto freedom." The seder includes telling the Exodus story as recorded in the Haggadah, eating of "slavery symbols" like bitter herbs (Marror), recounting the Ten Plagues, and drinking four cups of wine -- which correspond to the four stages of redemption as recorded in the Biblical book of Exodus. The Seder is highlighted by eating matzah as part of a festive meal.

The name "Passover" derives from the fact that during the final plague, God passed through the land and smote every firstborn Egyptian -- but made sure to "pass over" the Jewish houses.

All about Matzah

During the entire week of Passover, Jews are forbidden to eat or possess any chametz -- leavened grain. For this reason, we dispose of (or sell) all our bread, cookies, pasta, beer, etc. -- and purchase only products that are labeled "kosher for Passover." To avoid any problems of residual chametz, Jews also have special sets of dishes and pots for Passover.

Matzah is the main staple of the Passover week. The Bible gives two reasons for eating matzah. The most commonly-known is that on the morning of the Exodus, the Jews were so rushed in getting out of Egypt that the bread didn’t have time to rise -- hence they ate it unleavened.

In addition, the Bible (Exodus 12:8) states that the Jews also ate matzah the night before the Exodus -- at that first Passover Seder. That is because chametz is puffed up and represents arrogance; matzah is simple and humble. To come close to the Almighty, which is the ultimate pleasure in life, one must remove his own personal arrogance. Thus we remove chametz from our homes, and likewise work on the character trait of humility.

On the evening before Passover, there is a careful search of the home for chametz. It is done by candle light and is a memorable experience for the whole family. Any remaining chametz is either burned the next morning (in a ceremony called Be'ur Chometz), or is sold to a non-Jew for the week of Passover. The sale must be serious and legally-binding, and therefore should be done only through the assistance of a qualified rabbi. Any food that is sold must be put in a closed cabinet and taped shut.

Kitniyos

The following foods are traditionally not eaten on Pesach: rice, millet, beans (green beans are allowed), lentils, peas, corn, buckwheat, chickpeas, cumin, fennel, mustard, peanuts, tofu, seeds and more. These foods can be kept in the house – just don’t eat them. These foods can be used by small children, sick people or pets.

Important dates and times for Pesach 5780 / 2020 for Chicago

 

Purification of Vessels for Pesach

Do at home

Bedikas Chometz (the search of Chometz)

Tuesday, April 7

Fast of the First Born, Eruv Tavshilin to be able to cook for Shabbos

Wednesday, April 8

Eating of Chometz

Must stop by April 8, Wednesday morning, 10:18 am

Destruction & Nullification of Chometz

April 8, Wednesday morning before 11:35 am
In your backyard or flush down the toilet

Yom Tov Candles (with brocha "Shehecheyanu")

Wednesday evening, April 8, 7:04 pm

First Seder

Wednesday evening, April 8

Yom Tov Candles Second Night (with brocha "Shehehiyanu")

Thursday, evening, April 9, 8:25 pm

Second Seder

Thursday, evening, April 9

1st night of Counting of the Omer

Thursday, evening, April 9

Yom Tov Candles 7th day (no brocha "Shehecheyanu")

Tuesday evening, April 14, 7:11 pm

Yom Tov Candles 8th day (no brocha "Shehecheyanu")

Wednesday evening, April 15, 7:12 pm

Pesach is over

Thursday, April 16, 8:33 pm
Sold chometz can be eaten after 9:00 pm

Unfortunately due to CoronaVirus we will not hold services in our synagogue

 
Regardless how well you clean and search you house, everyone should sell their remaining chometz by filling out THIS FORM. PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU SIGN THE FORM  and bring it to rabbi Dimarsky. If you cannot bring the form in person, mail it to Heritage, 2941 W. Touhy Ave. Chicago IL 60645 or fax it to 1-866-211-8480. We need to receive your mail or fax no later then 11:00 PM of Tuesday night, April 7 2020. Forms received later that time will not be processed. 

If one finds chometz on Yom Tov, one should cover the chometz (because it is muktza) and burn it after Yom Tov.

This halacha only applies if one did not sell his chometz to a gentile. However, if one sells chometz to a gentile, this sale includes all chometz, wherever it may be found. Therefore, if one discovers pretzels in a drawer or bagel chips in a coat pocket on Pesach, one may not burn this chometz as it belongs to the gentile to whom the Rabbi sold the chometz! Rather, one should store the item with the “locked up” chometz sold to the gentile. On Yom Tov, one should cover it and lock it up on Chol Hamoed. It may be eaten after Pesach when the chometz is purchased back.

Chometz which was accidentally bought or acquired on Pesach should be destroyed immediately.

If one receives chometz in the mail or with the newspaper on Erev Pesach (after the 5th halachic hour) or on Pesach, one should not assume ownership of the item but rather leave the chometz outside. If mail is delivered through a mail slot into one’s home, have intent not to acquire the chometz (i.e. do not take legal possession) and kick it or push it outside with a stick to avoid handling it. If it is still around after Pesach, one may assume ownership at that time, and use it, provided that the sender is a gentile.

 
The Torah forbids a Jew to own, eat or get benefit from chometz during Pesach. The Torah also requires us to physically destroy our chometz.

We clean for Pesach to get rid of chometz, since we are not allowed to own it. Another reason is that we might find and accidentally eat it. As a double precaution we declare that the rest of the chometz which we didn’t find should be void. This way even if we find our chometz during Pesach it is technically not ours and we are not violating Torah law.

We clean only those places where we might accidentally come across and eat chometz. These places have to be cleaned even from the crumbs. Following this logic, we don’t need to clean behind or under heavy appliances or furniture, or in places where chometz is never brought in.

Cleaning for Pesach includes:

Our home, our work place, car, garage.
Toys which will be used during Pesach have to be cleaned.
Clothes which will be worn during Pesach have to be cleaned from crumbs
Dining room and kitchen tables have to be thoroughly cleaned and covered.
Chairs have to be cleaned.
Year round bentchers (prayer after meal books) shouldn’t be used.
Carpeted floors are sufficient to vacuum. Other types of floors need to be swept and washed.
Bookshelves – just light cleaning. Books don’t have to be removed or opened.

Not edible chometz has to be removed only if it is a size of kezais-olive (size of a standard slice of bread)

 

Preparing the kitchen

There are 3 main ways to kasher utensils: by cleaning, by hagalah and by libun.

Cleaning means cleaning with detergent
Hagalah means using hot boiling water. If cleaning the surface, like kitchen counter, the hot water is poured onto the counter. In the case of cleaning utensils, they have to be completely clean, not used for hot for 24 hours and then immersed into the boiling water. The pot, used to boil water doesn't have to be kosher for Pesach (but of course it has to be kosher and clean).
Libun means making the object hot (sometimes glowing) by heating it with the direct fire.

Pots, pot covers – hagalah
Spits, frying pans – libun
Spoons, forks – hagalah. If have plastic or wooden handles – can’t be kashered
Knives – if have plastic or wooden handles, buy new ones.
Silver Kiddush cup, small cups and saucer – hagalah
China, earthenware, porcelain – cannot be kashered
Drinking glasses, pitchers – soak 72 hours in soapy water, changing water every 24 hours.
Corningware, Correle, Pyrex, Duralex – should’t be kahsered.
Hand towels, tablecloths can be washed.
Smooth wooded cutting board can be kashered by hagala or by sending.
Plastic tablecloths cannot be kashered.
Wooden tables and benches should be cleaned and covered.
Formaica counter should be washed and covered.
Baby Bottle Since they have come in contact with chometz (e.g. washed with dishes, boiled in chometz pot), new ones should be purchased.
Baby High Chair Thoroughly clean.  Preferable to cover the tray with contact paper. Kitchen drawers, cabinet shelves should be cleaned and covered.

Refrigerator, freezer should be just cleaned.
Can Opener Manual or Electric – Clean thoroughly.
Candlesticks/Tray Clean thoroughly.
Bite Plates, Braces Clean thoroughly after finishing to eat chometz.
Washing cup used in kitchen: Metal – Hagola. Plastic: Put away with chometz dishes
One should buy kosher for Pesach dish soap.

Kitchen sink:

- Porcelain or enamel sinks should be covered with contact paper or aluminum foil.
- Steel sinks should be cleaned, not be used with hot water for 24 h. and then kashered by hagalah.

Faucets, spouts and it’s strainers should be cleaned well before hagalah.
Dishwasher – shouldn’t be kashered for Pesach
Hot water urn – better to buy a new one. In case of a need, the old one can be cleaned and filled till the top with water and boiled. Spout should be cleaned.
Coffee maker – buy a new one.
Graters, grinders should not be kashered for Pesach.
Mixers, food processors, blenders – if were used for making dough or cake– cannot be kashered. If were used for fruits, vegetables, meat, fish etc. have to be cleaned, bowl and blades need hagalah or need to be replaced.
Toaster should be cleaned and put away.
All paper ware and plastic silverware can be used for Pesach

Gas stove:

Clean burners, grates, the pans under the grates and the stove surface. Turn the burners on. Put on the grates pots with water for 15 minutes. Cover the stove surface with the aluminum foil, cutting out the holes for the burners. (Some people cover the grates, pan under the grates and stove handles with foil too.) Alternative method do kasher grates is to clean them and put inside of the oven. While kashering oven, grates will be kashered too.

Electric or glass stoves:

Clean all the parts and the stove surface. Turn the electric burners to high for 10 minutes. Cover the stove surface with foil, cutting out the holes for the burners.

Metal blech used during the year should be replaced with the new one.

Oven:

Don’t use for 24 hours. Clean thoroughly the oven, racks and the inside of the door with Eazy-off. Set to the highest degree for 1 hour. (some people also put inside the oven a foil pan with water and keep the oven on for another ½ hour). It is very hard to clean rack well, therefore it might be better to buy new racks or to cover the old ones with foil.

Broiler part of the oven should not be koshered but should be cleaned, closed up and not used.

Self-cleaning ovens don’t need to be cleaned and can be used within 24 hours. Inside of the doors of these ovens still have to be cleaned. Set it on self-cleaning cycle and you are done. You can put the burners or other metal parts inside the oven to kasher them during the self-cleaning cycle.

Filters above the range hood should be cleaned by soaking them in the water/ammonia solution for 20 minutes.

Microwave should not be koshered for Pesach

Preparing the bathroom:

Clean everything, replace toothbrushes and toothpaste with new ones.

May not be used during Pesach: any products containing alcohol (cologne, hair spray, after shave, mouthwash, spray deodorant – anything that one theoretically can drink) should be thrown away or locked up and sold.

May be used during Pesach: nail polish, polish remover, hand lotion, creams, shampoos, shoe polish, ink, paint, air freshener, powders, stick deodorant, eye shadow, liner, mascara, blush, soap (can’t drink those). The custom is to buy kosher for Pesach toothpaste, mouthwash and lipstick.

Medicine

Passover Medicines and Cosmetics Guide click HERE

Bitter, tasteless medicine, eye drops and other drops may be used for Pesach. Medicine that has to be chewed and has pleasant taste needs to be kosher for Pesach. Always consult your doctor and rabbi about specific medicine. Vitamins need to be kosher for Pesach.

As a general rule, whenever possible it is better to buy all the food before Pesach. Because before Pesach even if there is some chometz, it is annulled in the rest of the product. All milk products should be purchased before Pesach.

Another general rule: all food (except for fresh fruit and vegetables) require Kosher for Pesach supervision. They include but not limited to: juices, soda, canned food, dried food, ketchup, mayonnaise, sugar, spices, coffee, tea, milk, butter, cheese, baby food.

Kitniyos

The following foods are traditionally not eaten on Pesach: rice, millet, beans (green beans are allowed), lentils, peas, corn, buckwheat, chickpeas, cumin, fennel, mustard, peanuts, tofu, seeds and more. These foods can be kept in the house – just don’t eat them. These foods can be used by small children, sick people or pets.

 

THE FAST OF THE FIRST BORN

A first born male must fast on erev (eve of) pesach. If a first born is too young too fast, then his father must fast in his place.

SEDER PREPARATIONS 

As many preparations as possible for the seder that can be done before the holiday should be done at that time. This includes:

- Cutting plastic tablecloths and garbage bags from a roll.
- Opening cases and individual bottles of wine.
- Roasting the z’roah (shank bone for the seder plate).
- Roasting the egg for the seder plate. Note: The roasted egg may be eaten at the Seder.  The prohibition is only on roasted meat.
- The Charoses, since grating and grinding must be done with a ‘shinui’(change), on Yom Tov. Mixing in wine can be done on holiday night, but only to make enough for one seder.

- Salt water for dipping at the seder.

- If using romaine lettuce for marror, checking should be done before the holiday.

- Grating of horseradish. 

BEDIKAS CHOMETZ - searching for chometz

Regardless how well you clean and search you house, everyone should sell their remaining chometz by filling out THIS FORM. PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU SIGN THE FORM  and bring it to rabbi Dimarsky. If you cannot bring the form in person, mail it to Heritage, 2941 W. Touhy Ave. Chicago IL 60645 or fax it to 1-866-211-8480. We need to receive your mail or fax no later then 11:00 PM of Tuesday night, April 7 2020. Forms received later that time will not be processed. 

Bedikas Chometz-the search for chometz- is usually done on the night of the 14th of Nissan, and the be’ur- burning of chometz-on the morning of the 14th. If someone forgot to do the search in the evening, he should do it on the next day as soon as he remembers. One can still purchase Chometz after the night searching, but no more than necessary.

- The custom is to daven Maariv before performing the bedikah, when possible.
- Those who work late do not have to have their wives check for them; rather the bedikah can be performed when they return home.
- It is not permitted to partake of a meal before the bedikah is made. A small snack, however, is permitted.
- Once the bracha is recited, one is not permitted to speak needlessly until after the recitation of the Kol Chamira declaration of the Kol Chamira declaration at he conclusion of the bedikah.  
- Our custom is to make the bracha and begin the bedikah with a candle, since it is mentioned explicity in the Gemorah (Talmud).  Afterwards, though, one is permitted to continue with a flashlight since it is less dangerous and provides better light.
- Closing the light in the room that you are checking depends on each individual’s preference.
- Since the thorough cleaning was done before this night, at this final checking we are lenient and we only make a superficial bedikah looking primarily in those places that may have been overlooked.
- Since most times chometz is not found during the bedikah, the custom is to place ten pieces around the house so that the brocha on the bedikah will not be wasted.
- The ten pieces of bread should equal, at least, a kezayis to be able to make the bracha.  However, no single piece should equal or be large than a kezayis because if such a large piece were to be lost, the entire house would have to be checked until it was found.  If the piece is less that a kezayis, then the law of bitul (voiding) will work and the piece can be ignored.
- Cars and other vehicles do not have to be checked at this time provided they were cleaned thoroughly beforehand.  The same applies to pockets of clothing that have been cleaned.
- If you own an office or store that you will be using on Chol Hamoed (the intermediate days of the holiday), it must be cleaned as if it were your home. Ideally this bedikah should begin after nightfall with the bracha and then continue at one’s home. When this is not possible, the bedikah for the store or place of employment can be done during the day (no bracha is made).
- If the store or place of employment will not be used at all on the holiday, it can be locked up and all chometz inside must be sold.
- If you are leaving home for Pesach, you should check your home the night before you leave.
- If you are staying in a hotel for Pesach, you must make a bedikah the night before Pesach in your room.
- Every Jew must sell their chometz before Pesach. If one knows that he will be eating by relatives after Pesach who do not sell their chometz, one is permitted to sell their chometz without their permission or knowledge.  You are abel to do this because of the rule that one is permitted to perform beneficial acts for other even without their awareness.  After Pesach it will be permitted to eat in their home.
- Most animal food contains chometz and one must check before Pesach to be certain that they are not feeding their pet(s) chometz on Pesach.
- Anything that is soled to a non-Jew for Pesach does not have to be cleaned.

Chometz Checklist

Before we are ready for Bedikas Chometz we must have finished the major part of our house cleaning.
Below is an alphabetical list on which you can check off the items that were already cleaned

Aquarium (most fish food is chometz)
Arts and Crafts projects containing painted noodles, macaroni or other chometz
Automobile (floors, glove compartment, trunk,
under seats, etc.)
Baking oven and the hood
Bar (most alcoholic beverages are chometz)
Basement (if not planning to use - close and sell)
Benchers (Grace after meal booklets)
Bird cages
Bread boxes (clean and store)
Briefcases
Books (just those which are usually brought to the table)
Cabinets
Car seats
Carpet sweepers
Carriages
Closets
Clothes (pockets and cuffs).
Cookie jars, candy dishes (clean and store)
Cribs
Desk and draws
Fish tank (most fish food is chometz)
Floors and carpets
Furniture
Garage and workshops
Garbage cans and pails
(get new broom)
Halls
High chair
Jewelry and cosmetic boxes
Lunch boxes (clean and store)
Medicine chest (consult an Orthodox Rabbi if you intend to use medications or vitamins on Pesach)
Office, store or factory
Pet house (most animal food is chometz)
Picnic box (clean and store)
Play-Doh
Playpen
Playroom
Porches
Purses
Safe
School lockers
Shelves and bookcases
Shopping carts
Storage room
Strollers
Toaster (clean and store)
Toothbrush (get a new one)
Toys, toy chest, toy house
Travel bags
Under radiators
Vacuum cleaner and bags
Window sills

 
Required Amounts of Foods and Beverages for Pesach Seder 

MINIMUM SIZE OF WINE CUPS (KOSOS)

1. For the Arbah Kosos(Four Cups) and for Kiddush (except on Friday night) and for Havdalah the cup must be at least 3.3 fluid ounces in size.
2. When the Seder is on Friday evening, the Kiddush Cup should be at least 4.42 fluid ounces in size. This also applies to the Kiddush Cup used every Friday evening, throughout the year.

Note: If one recites the Kiddush on behalf of the assembled when the Seder occurs on Friday night, then the cup of the one reciting tht Kiddush must be at least 4.42 fluid ounces, while the cups of the assembled (who must each drink his or her cup to fulfill the mitzvah of the First of the Four Cups) can be 3.3 fluid ounces in size.

MINIMUM STRENGTH OF WINE


1. Full strength wine (without diluting) is required for the Arbah Kosos(Four Cups).
2. Only, if one's health does not permit this, then one may dilute the wine with the least amount of grape juice possible. 3. If, for health reasons, one cannot use wine at all, one may substitute grape juice.
4. If one must dilute grape juice with water, the ration should not exceed 2/3 cup water to 1/3 cup arave 4 nice.
5. If one does not have enough wine to perform the Mitzvah (Kiddush, Havdalah, etc.) water may be added but not in excess of 2/15 cup) wine to 3/5 cup water.
Note: The "Brocha" upon all these mixtures is "Borei Pri haHagofen."

MINIMUM AMOUNT OF MATZAH

Each person must eat the minimum amount of Matzoh the following three times during the Seder: 1) after the Brocha Al Achilas Matzoh 2) For Korech 3) for the Afikomen.
After the Brocha, Al Achilas Matzoh and for the Afikomen, - a piece equivalent in size to 7 inches by 6 1/4 inches.
For Korech - a piece equivalent in size to 7 inches by 4 inches.
If for health reasons, one cannot eat Matzoh, then Matzoh Shmurah Meal (upon which one is permitted to recite the Hamotzee) may be substituted as follows:
After reciting the Brocha, Al Achilas Matzo and for Afikomen - an amount of meal that can be compacted into a vessel measuring 1.5 fluid ounces.
For Korech - an amount of meal that can be compacted into a vessel holding 1.1 fluid ounces.

MINIMUM AMOUNT OF MOROR
(bitter herbs)

Each person must eat a minimum amount of Moror during the Seder. Once after the Brocha, Al Achilas Moror, and once, for Korech If using pure, grated horseradish, use the following amounts:
1. After reciting the Brocha, Al Achilas Moror - an amount that can be compacted into a vessel measuring 1.1 fluid ounces. 2. For Korech - an amount that can be compacted into a vessel measuring .7 fluid ounces. If using Romaine Lettuce whole leaves, use the following amounts:
After reciting the Brocha, Al Achilas Morror and for Korech, enough leaves to cover an area of 8 x 10 inches. If using Romaine Lettuce Stalks only, use the following amounts:
After reciting the Brocha, Al Achilas Morror and for Korech, enough stalks to cover an area of 3 x 5 inches.
It is advisable to measure, before the beginning of the Holiday, the size of the cup to find out how many fluid ounces it holds. Then at the Seder, one can pack enough of the Matzo Meal and grated horseradish to reach the required amount.

NOTE: These minimum requirements of Kosos, Matzoh, and Moror must be complied with by women as well as men.

 
THE SEDER PLATE

There are several customs as to how the seder plate should be arranged. The general custom is that of the Arizal (i.e. the round seder plate, shown in the picture found in most haggados). Those following the custom of the Arizal place their matzah underneath the seder plate.

RECLINING

All men must recline on their left side while drinking all four kosos (cups) and while eating motzei matzah, korech (sandwich of matzah and marror) and the afikomen. A left handed person is also required to lean on his left side. A left handed person who erroneously reclined on his right side has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. Preferably, one should recline on pillows or cushions.

Women are not required to recline while eating or drinking. The custom among Sefardim is for women to recline. One should not recline while reciting the haggadah or hallel, as one is supposed to recite them b’eima uv’yirah  (with fear).

Although one should recline while eating korech (the sandwich), one should not recline while eating maror (bitter herbs).

THE MITZVAH OF THE 4 KOSOS (CUPS)

Our Rabbis require one to drink four kosos of wine at the seder. These four kosos correspond to the four terminologies of redemption used to describe the final salvation from Mitzrayim (Egypt). One must use a kos that contains at least a re'veis of wine in order to make a bracha on it. Although one is only required to drink the majority of the kos, an effort should be made to drink the entire kos (see “Sizes” tab).

One should preferably use red wine for the 4 kosos. One who enjoys the taste of white wine more than red wine, may use white wine for the do/ed kosos. Preferably, the wine that is used should not be mevushol (cooked).

One should drink the required amount of wine within the shiur (amount of time), which means that one must drink the wine in two swallows with a minimal pause between them. One who is unable to drink the wine in this manner should drink it within three to four minutes. (Obviously, the faster one drinks the wine, the better it is).

One who has difficulty drinking intoxicating beverages due to a medical condition, should preferably take a smaller kos with the minimum shiur of a re'veis (3 ounces), and drink the minimum amount required. (which is little more than half the kos (1.6 ounces), rather than using grape juice. Although such a person will wind up drinking only 6.4 ounces for all four kosos, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. One who can't drink even this small amount of wine, may dilute it with grape juice or water. If even this is not possible, he may drink grape juice, or at the very least raisin wine or any other chamar medina (beverage of the land -i.e. soda).

A father is obligated to train his child to drink the four kosos. The age of training begins at approximately 5-6 years old. If a child understands the concept of the passage of the haggadah that accompanies each kos, he should be trained to drink that kos.

It is preferred that the master of the house not pour his own kos since he should be treated as a king and someone else should pour the kos for him.

A paper or plastic kos should not be used.

KARPAS

One is required to wash their hands without a bracha prior to dipping the karpas into saltwater. This halacha (law) is often only practiced on Pesach during the seder and is neglected all year round. However, this halacha does not apply solely on Pesach, and one must wash his hands with a kos (in the same manner that is done prior to eating bread) prior to dipping anything into liquid (e.g. cookies and cake into milk) all year round.

Women and children are also required to wash their hands. One should keep in mind the severity of being neglectful and not washing their hands when it is required.

The bracha of borei pri ha'adamah should be said following the dipping, so that there should be no interruption. One should have in mind that this bracha should also be for the maror, which will be eaten later on.

For karpas, a vegetable (e.g. celery or parsleyetc.) is dipped into the saltwater. Some poskim (authorities on Jewish law) hold that potatoes should not be used because it is a cooked vegetable. They explain that perhaps the reason why potatoes were traditionally used in Russia was because no other vegetable was available. One should not use a veg- etable that is acceptable to be used for maror. Many poskim say that one should recline while eating karpas. One should eat less than a kezayis of the karpas in order not to be faced with the problem of whether or not he should recite a bracha achrona (bracha recited after eating) since this is a dispute among the Rishonim (earliest Halacha authorities). One who mistakenly ate a kezayis of karpas should not recite a bracha achrona.

MAGGID 

It is more important to spend time understanding the simple translation of what is being said in the haggadah, than to spend time saying many divrei Torah. While saying the passages of Pesach, Matzah and Moror, one should make certain that the women and children are present at the table. It is not sufficient to recite these words with a simple translation, since this is the answer to the mah nishtana. The children must be present and the leader of the seder must explain to them on their level of understanding how this answers their questions. One who does not explain this to their children may not have fulfilled his obligation of sipur yetzias mitzrayim (telling over the story of the going out of Egypt). Many have a custom to point at the maror and matzah while reciting these passages. One should lift the matzah and maror while reciting their respective passages. One should not pick up the zeroah while reciting its passage.

MATZAH

Min HaTorah (Biblically) everyone, including women, is required to eat a kezayis of matzoh on the night of the seder. Chazal require us to eat the matzoh within 3-4 minutes after the bracha of al achilas matzoh is said (The faster the matzoh is eaten the better). Everyone at the table should receive two kezaysim of matzoh to eat. Machine matzah may be used to fulfill the mitzvah of matzah, but many people prefer to use hand-made shmurah matzah at the seder. Both kezaysim should be eaten simultaneously.

Although sick people may eat egg matzos during Pesach, one does not fulfill the obligation of eating matzah with them. One who cannot eat regular matzah may fulfill his obligation by eating crushed matzah. If it is impossible for such a person to eat crushed matzah, he should dip the matzah into water. This is true even if one does not normally eat gebrochts, since the mitzvah De'oraisa (commandment from the Torah) takes precedence over the minhag (custom) of not eating gebrochts. The matzah should be eaten without any other food or condiment, so that the flavor of the matzah should not mix with any other flavor. One should not talk from after reciting the bracha of al achilas matzah until after korech

THE AMOUNT OF MATZAH ONE IS REQUIRED TO EAT

All participants of the seder must eat a kezayis from an unbroken matzoh and a kezayis from the broken matzoh for a total of two kezaysim. While eating the two kezaysim during the motzei matzoh and the two kezaysim of afikoman, one may use one-quarter of an average size matzoh for the required amount of one kezayis. During korech, where one is only required to eat one kezayis, the shiur of the kezayis is measured more stringently, and one should use one-third of an average matzah. In many instances, the amount of matzah on the seder plate is not adequate to give each person sitting at the table his or her proper shiur. Therefore, some people have the custom to give each group of participants at the seder three matzos to fulfill their obligation of motzei matzah. Two matzos should be shlaimim (whole) while the third is a prusah (a matzah broken in half). This custom also enables the participants to eat the required amount of matzah within the required 3-4 minutes from when the ba'al habayis (leader of the seder) says the bracha. Likewise, one may add matzah as is needed to complete the shiur for korech and afikoman.

MAROR

Chazal require one to eat maror to remind us of the bitter galus (exile).
One may fulfill this obligation by eating any of the following vegetables: (Listed in order of preference):

Romaine lettuce,
French endives,
escarole,
horseradish.

Although Romaine lettuce is not bitter, the Yerushalmi explains that just as Romaine lettuce is sweet at first and becomes bitter afterwards (i.e. if left in the ground for a long period of time, it will become bitter) similarly, at the beginning our forefathers in Mitzrayim were treated as royalty and only afterwards were forced to do hard labor. One must be very careful to check the lettuce for insect infestation, as there may be small insects in the lettuce that are camouflaged in the folds of the leaves. While eating maror is required Miderabbanon (Rabbinically), consuming an insect is an issur Deoraisah (forbidden Biblically), and one must therefore be careful to check for infestation before using it. One who is unable to check the lettuce for insect infestation should use one of the other types of maror. One should use leaves that are fresh and moist and not dried out, for dried out leaves usually have lost their taste. Stalks that are dried out may still be used, since they retain their flavor due to their thickness. The maror may be uncovered for a while before the seder in order to lessen its bitterness. When dipping the maror into the charoses, one should be careful not to completely cover the maror with a lot of charoses thereby eliminating the maror's bitter taste, but one should shake off the charoses prior to eating the maror.

AFIKOMAN

One should eat two kezaysim of matzah for the afikoman. One kezayis corresponds to the korbon Pesach (Pesach sacrifice), and the other kezayis corresponds to the matzah eaten with the korban Pesach. After one designates and eats the two kezaysim of matzah for the afikoman, one many not eat or drink any intoxicating beverages other than the two remaining kosos. One who eats after the afikoman, must redesignate and reeat the afikoman. The afikoman should be eaten while reclining. One who did not recline and did not yet bentch (say grace after meals), should eat the afikoman again, if it is not too difficult to do so. One should hide the afikoman. It has become customary for children to ask for presents prior to returning the afikoman. If the afikoman gets lost, other matzah may be substituted in its place. The afikoman should be eaten before chatzos (halachic midnight), since it corresponds to the korbon Pesach, which could be eaten until midnight. It is preferably to recite the portion of hallel that is said after the meal prior to chatzos (midnight). One who was unable to eat the afikoman before midnight may still eat it after midnight, since some hold that the korban Pesach was allowed to be eaten past midnight. A person should also try to drink the fourth kos before chatzos.

HALLEL

One should preferably hold the kos for the entire hallel, since there is a principle to recite song over wine. If there are three people sitting at the seder, regardless of age or gender, those parts of hallel which are recited responsively in shul should be recited responsively at the seder as well.

KRIAS SHEMA (RECITING BEDTIME SHEMA PRAYER)

One is not required to say the complete order of krias shema prior to going to sleep on the two seder nights, since Hakadosh Baruch Hu (The Holy One Blessed Be He) extends an extra measure of protection on these nights. Nevertheless, one should say hamapil and the first section of krias shema.

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Shabbos Information
This week`s Torah chapter is Tzav

Candle lighting will be at 7:00 PM

Shabbos ends at 8:22 PM
Weekly Torah

The Torah addresses Aharon and his sons to teach them additional laws that relate to their service. The ashes of the `Korban Olah` -- the korban burnt on the Altar throughout the night -- are to be removed from the area by the Kohen after he takes off his special linen clothing. The Olah is brought by someone who forgot to perform a positive commandment of the Torah. The Kohen retains the skin. The fire on the Altar must be kept constantly blazing. The `Korban Minchah` is a meal offering that is made from flour, oil and spices. A handful of it is burned on the Altar, and a Kohen eats the remainder before it becomes leaven. The Parashah describes the special korbanot offered by the Kohen Gadol each day, and by Aharon`s sons and future descendants on the day of their inauguration.

The `Chatat,` the korban brought after an accidental transgression, is described, as are the laws for the slaughtering and sprinkling the blood of the `Asham,` the `guilt-korban` for certain transgressions. The details for the `Shlamim,` various types of peace korbanot, are described, including the prohibition against leaving the remains of the `Todah,` the thanksgiving korban, uneaten until the morning. All sacrifices must be burned after they may no longer be eaten. No sacrifice may be eaten if it was slaughtered with the intention of eating it too late.

Once they have become tame (ritually impure) korbanot may not be eaten and they should be burned. One may not eat a korban when he is ritually impure. Blood and Chelev, forbidden fats of animals, are prohibited to eat. Aharon and his sons are granted the breast and shank of every `Korban Shlamim`. The inauguration ceremony for Aharon, his sons, the Mishkan and all of its vessels is detailed.

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Shabbos Halacha

 Shabbat: Permitted Acquisitions

You may not acquire items (kinyan) on Shabbat unless they are needed  for that Shabbat or for doing a mitzva. The classic example of doing something for Shabbat is bringing food or drink to a house for Shabbat lunch, which the house owner acquires on Shabbat for Shabbat

Source: practicalhalacha.com

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Teruma

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Rav Zilber in Russian
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HaShem commands Moshe to build a Mishkan (Sanctuary) and supplies him with detailed instructions. The Beney Yisrael are asked to contribute precious metals and stones, fabrics, skins, oil and spices. 

In the Mishkan's outer courtyard is an Altar for the burnt offerings and a laver for washing. The Tent of Meeting is divided by a curtain into two chambers. The outer chamber is accessible only to the Kohanim, the descendants of Aharon. This contains the Table of showbreads, the Menorah, and the Golden Altar for incense. The innermost chamber, the Holy of Holies, may be entered only by the Kohen Gadol, and only once a year, on Yom Kippur. Here is the Ark that held the Ten Commandments inscribed on the two tablets of stone which HaShem gave to the Jewish nation on Mt. Sinay. All of the utensils and vessels, as well as the construction of the Mishkan, are described in extraordinary detail.

The Offering

   God spoke to Moses, saying:  Speak to the Israelites and have them bring Me an offering. Take My offering from everyone whose heart impels him to give.

   The offering that you take from them shall consist of the following: Gold, silver, copper, sky-blue [wool], dark red [wool], [wool dyed with] crimson worm, linen, goats wool, reddened rams' skins, blue-processed skins, acacia wood, oil for the lamp, spices for the anointing oil and the sweet- smelling incense, and sardonyxes and other precious stones for the ephod and breastplate.

   They shall make Me a sanctuary, and I will dwell among them.
   You must make the tabernacle and all its furnishings following the plan that I am showing you.

The Ark

   Make an ark of acacia wood, 2½cubits long, 1½cubits wide, and 1½cubits high.  Cover it with a layer of pure gold on the inside and outside, and make a gold rim all around its top.

   Cast four gold rings for [the ark], and place them on its four corners, two rings on one side, and two on the other side.

   Make two carrying poles of acacia wood and cover them with a layer of gold. Place the poles in the rings on the sides of the ark, so that the ark can be carried with them. The poles must remain in the ark's rings and not be removed.

   It is in this ark that you will place the testimony that I will give you.

{tab=2nd aliya}
Make a golden cover for the ark. 2½cubits  long  and 1½cubits wide.

   Make two golden cherubs, hammering them out from the two ends of the cover. One cherub shall be on one end, and one on the other. Make the cherubs from [the same piece of gold] as the cover itself, on its two ends. The cherubs shall spread their wings upward so that their wings shield the cover. The cherubs shall face one another, but their faces shall [also be inclined downward] toward the cover.

   Place the cover on top of the ark [after] you place into the ark the testimony that I will give you.
   I will commune with you there, speaking to you from above the ark - cover, from between the two cherubs that are on the Ark of Testimony. [In this manner] I will give you instructions for the Israelites.

The Table

   Make a table out of acacia wood, 2 cubits long, one cubit wide, and 1½cubits high. Cover it with a layer of pure gold, and make a gold rim all around it. Make a frame a handbreadth wide all around the table, and on the frame all around, the golden rim shall be placed.

   Make four gold rings for [the table], and place the rings on the four corners of its four legs. The rings shall be adjacent to the frame, [and] they shall be receptacles for the poles with which the table is carried. The poles shall be made of acacia wood and covered with a layer of gold. They will be used to carry the table.

   For [the table] make bread forms, incense bowls, and side frames, as well as the half tubes that will serve as dividers [between the loaves of bread]. All these shall be made of pure gold.

   It is on this table that showbread shall be placed before Me at all times.

{tab=3rd aliya}

The Lamp

   Make a menorah out of pure gold. The menorah shall be formed by hammering it. Its base, stem, and [decorative] cups, spheres and flowers must be hammered out of a [single piece of gold].

   Six branches shall extend from its sides, three branches on one side of the menorah, and three branches on the other side.

   There shall be three embossed cups, as well as a sphere and a flower on each and every one of the branches. All six branches extending from
the menorah's [stem] must be the same in this respect.

   The [shaft of the] menorah shall have four embossed cups along with its spheres and flowers. A sphere shall serve as a base for each pair of
branches extending from [the shaft]. This shall be true for all six branches extending from the [stem of] the menorah. The spheres and branches shall be an integral part of [the menorah]. They shall all be hammered out of a single piece of pure gold.

   Make seven lamps on [the menorah]. Its lamps shall be lit so that they shine [primarily] toward its center.
   [The menorah's] wick tongs and ash scoops shall [also] be made out of pure gold.
   [The menorah], including all its parts, shall be made of a talent of pure gold.
   Carefully observe the pattern that you will be shown on the mountain and make [the menorah] in that manner.

The Tabernacle

    Make the tabernacle out of ten large tapestries consisting of twined linen, and sky-blue, dark red, and crimson [wool], with a pattern of cherubs woven into them. Each tapestry shall be 2 8 cubits long and 4 cubits wide, with each tapestry the same size.

   The [first] five tapestries shall be sewn together, and the [second] five shall [also] be sewn together.

   Make loops of sky-blue wool at the edge of the innermost tapestry of the first group. Do the same on the edge of the innermost tapestry of the second group. Place 50 loops on the one tapestry, and 50 on the edge of the tapestry in the second group. [The two sets of loops shall be made so that] the loops are exactly opposite one another.

   Make 50 golden fasteners. The two [groups of] tapestries will then be able to be joined together, so that the tabernacle will be one piece.
   Make sheets of goat's wool to serve as a tent over the tabernacle. There shall be 11 such sheets, and each sheet shall be 30 cubits long, and 4 cubits wide. All 11 sheets must be the same size.

   Sew together the [first] five sheets by themselves, and the [other] six sheets by themselves. Half of the sixth sheet shall hang over the front of the tent.

   Make 50 loops on the edge of the innermost sheet of the first group, and 50 loops on the edge of the innermost sheet of the second group. Make 50 copper fasteners. Place the fasteners in the loops, bringing the tent together and making it one.

   There will then remain an extra portion from what is left over in [the breadth] of the sheets of the tent. The extra half sheet shall trail behind the back of the tabernacle.

   The extra cubit on both sides in the length of the tent's sheets shall hang down over the sides of the [tapestries of the] tabernacle to cover them on bo6 sides.

   Make a roof for the tent out of reddened rams' skins. Above it make a roof out of the blue processed hides.

{tab=4th aliya}

The Beams

   Make upright beams for the tabernacle out of acacia wood. Each beam shall be 10 cubits long, and 1½cubits wide.                                                                                  

   Each beam shall have two matching square pegs [carved out at the bottom]. All the beams for the tabernacle must be made in this manner.

   Make 20 beams for the southern side of the tabernacle. Place 40 silver bases under the 20 beams. There shall be two bases under each beam, one [to hold] each peg.

   For the second side of the tabernacle to the north, there shall [likewise] be 20 beams and 40 silver bases. [Here too] there shall be two sockets under each and every beam.

   Make six beams for the west side of the tabernacle, and place [another] two beams at the corners.

   [All the beams] must be exactly next to each other on the bottom. [Even pair] shall also be [joined] together evenly on top with a [square] ring. This shall also be done with the two [beams] on the two corners.

   Thus, [on the west side] there will be [a total of] eight beams and 16 silver bases, two bases under each and every beam. 

   Make crossbars out of acacia wood. There shall be five for the beams of the first side of the tabernacle [to the south]. [There shall also be] five for the beams of the second side [to the north], and five for the beams of the tabernacle on the western wall. [Of these], the center crossbar shall
go through the middle of the beams, from one end [of the tabernacle] to the other.

   Cover the beams with a layer of gold. Also make gold rings [on the beams] to hold the crossbars. The crossbars shall also be covered with a layer of gold.

   You will then be ready to set up the tabernacle in the proper manner, as you were shown on the mountain.

{tab=5th aliya}

The Partition

   Make a cloth partition out of sky-blue, dark red and crimson [wool, woven together] with twined linen. Cherubs shall be woven into it [so that they can be seen on both sides]. Place it on four gold-covered acacia pillars having gold hooks. [The pillars shall be] set in four silver sockets.

   Place the cloth partition directly under the fastenings [holding the tapestries together].

   Into the space behind this curtain you will bring the Ark of Testimony. This curtain will thus divide between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. You will then place the cover on the Ark of Testimony in the Holy of Holies.

   Place the table outside the curtain, toward the northern wall of the tabernacle. The menorah shall be opposite the table, toward the southern wall of the tabernacle.
  
Make a drape for the entrance of the tent, out of sky-blue, dark red and crimson wool, and twined linen. It shall be embroidered work.  Make five acacia pillars to hold the drape. Cover them with a layer of gold and place golden hooks on them. Cast five copper bases for [the pillars].

{tab=6th aliya}

The Altar

   Make the altar out of acacia wood. The altar shall be square, 5 cubits by 5 cubits, and 3 cubits high. Make protrusions on all four sides as an integral part of [the altar]. Then cover it with a layer of copper.

   Make pots to remove its greasy ashes, as well as scoops, sacrificial basins, flesh pokers, and fire pans [for the altar]. All these instruments shall be made of copper.

   Make a screen out of copper net to go around [the altar]. Place four copper rings on the four corners of the screen. The screen shall be placed below the decorative border of the altar, extending downward until the middle of the altar.

   Make carrying poles for the altar out of acacia wood covered with a layer of copper. Place the poles in the rings so that the poles will be on the two sides of the altar when it is carried.

   [The altar] shall be a hollow structure made out of boards. You must make it as you were shown on the mountain.

{tab=7th aliya}

The Enclosure

   Make the enclosure for the tabernacle in this manner:

  On the south side, there shall be hangings made of twined linen. [Like all the other] sides, it shall be 100 cubits long. It shall have 20 pillars and 20 copper bases. The hooks and bands for the pillars shall be made of silver.

   The same shall be done on the north side. The hangings shall be 100 cubits long, with 20 pillars and 20 copper bases, with silver hooks and bands for the pillars.

   The width of the hangings at the western end of the enclosure shall be 50 cubits, and it shall have 10 pillars and 10 bases.

   The width of the enclosure at its eastern end shall [also] be 50cubits. [Of this,] the hangings on one side of [the entrance] shall be 15 cubits long, with 3 pillars and 3 bases. On the other side, the hangings shall [also] be 15 [cubits long], with 3 pillars and 3 bases. The entrance of the enclosure shall [be covered] with a 20 cubit embroidered drape made of sky-blue, dark red, and crimson wool together with twisted linen. It shall have 4 pillars and 4 bases.

   All the pillars of the outer enclosure shall have silver hoops, silver hooks, and copper bases.

   The length of the enclosure shall be 100 cubits, and its width shall be 50 cubits. [The pillars holding the hangings] of twined linen shall be 5 cubits high, and their bases shall be made of copper.

   All the equipment used to make the tabernacle shall be made out of copper. The stakes [for the tabernacle itself], and all the stakes for the enclosure shall also be made of copper.

Б-г велел Моше построить мишкан (шатер-святилище), явив ему зримый образ-модель и дав подробные указания. Все необходимые для строительства и начала служения материалы - драгоценные металлы и камни, ткани, кожи, ценные породы дерева, ароматические масла и благовония - должны были поступить от евреев в качестве добровольных пожертвований.

Во внешнем дворе святилища должен был находится жертвенник и медный умывальник. Сам шатер откровения разделялся завесой на два покоя. Во внешний покой имели доступ только когены (жрецы), потомки Аарона. Там находился стол с хлебами приношения, менора (семисвечник) и золотой жертвенник для воскурений. Во внутреннее помещение, святая святыx, мог войти только первосвященник (коген гадоль) и только один раз в год - в Судный день (День искупления, Йом Кипур). Здесь находился ковчег свидетельства, содержавший каменные скрижали с десятью заповедями, полученные на горе Синай. Большая часть недельного раздела посвящена детальному описанию инструментов, принадлежностей и конструкции святилища.

 

 

Rav Yitzchak Zilber (in Russian) Rabbi Dovid Grossman (in English)